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Tuesday, 19 September 2017


THE BREXIT issue has created Chaos for both sides in the negotiations, between the EU and Britain ! 

Basically one can question whether the BREXIT issue was launched before either side was really ready.

On the EU side one can even question whether anyone there really knows how the EU will evolve during the coming years ! 

In particular, the "revealing" remarks by Jean-Claude Juncker last week, that every EU country must adopt the EURO as its currency, was typical of his previous unguarded assertions.  His statement was immediately watered down by Angela Merkel.  She at present is fighting for her re-election as Chancellor of Germany. The General Election is this coming weekend ! 

Juncker's idea of the ultimate type of EU seems to be like one Country with one currency with omnipotent and centralised powers to rule.  The current type of EU already allows each non EURO Country to manage its currency and allows all countries significant local powers to tax and run their countries.

Several EU countries like Britain, do not want to adopt the EURO as their currency.  This is one important reason why Juncker wants Britain out of the EU as soon as possible but ..... not before having paid an astronomic Financial penalty to get out !

BREXIT is also causing chaos in Britain for other reasons.   Theresa May was chosen as Prime Minister after the unexpected and close majority for BREXIT in the Referendum vote.  She immediately adopted this divine mission and is fervently negotiating, to get Britan out of the EU but also to reduce the astronomic cost of the leaving penalties demanded by the EU.

Alas, the popularity of Theresa May and that of the Conservative Party, has slumped.  Does May ever hear or listen to the people around her who are having second thoughts about BREXIT !  In fact, is there now in Britain still a majority in favour of leaving the EU ?

But, to survive the EU must now quickly update its Treaties :  there is an urgent clamour for this to be done.  The main bones of contention are Immigration, Terrorism and the Insecurity in the EU, all provoked by the Islamic State aggression in the Middle East ! 

Finally, it is high time for Brussels to define the form of the future EU it proposes to adopt !   After that, will there still be a BREXIT and/or other EXITS ?




Monday, 18 September 2017


Un jour qu’il visitait une « Administration », Clemenceau qui n’était pas tendre avec les fonctionnaires dit aux officiels qui l’accompagnaient : « Parlons bas, nous pourrions les réveiller » !
*** J’espère que les fonctionnaires qui vont recevoir ce dessin ont suffisamment d’humour pour accepter cette plaisanterie. Dans le cas contraire je les invite à rechercher sur internet la méthode  de pliage qui permet de réaliser de magnifiques cocottes en papier.


Sunday, 17 September 2017


The BREXIT request by Britain to leave the EU has a cost which must be negotiated, but the UK is prepared to pay.  However, should adjustments  not be made to this cost for the policies which British electors found unacceptable when they voted in the Referendum to leave the EU ? 

It would be foolish for Britain to accept, or for the EU to want to impose a Financial Penalty if, as soon as Britain has paid and left the EU, Treaties are changed to prevent further "EXITS" by other EU countries !

There are several situations where clear notes should provide for a reimbursement if ultimately Treaties are changed.   The obvious ones concern the Rules for Immigration and the Freedom of movement in the EU ! 

Judging from published comments, the EU and in particular its Head of the European Commission,  Jean-Claude Juncker, may not appreciate these observations !

Albeit, but in the serious World of Business the Rules of Equity must be applied ! 




The age old justification from Victorian times that natives born in Britain do not need an Identity Card,  because they are known in their Community, is no longer valid or acceptable in the modern Britain of today !

One of the main justifications underlying the BREXIT VOTE was the wish to control and reduce immigration from the EU and elsewhere.   That is easy !  One can refuse entry if identity documentation is not acceptable.

However, does Britain really have the PRACTICAL means to verify easily the identity of everyone already living there ?  How many visitors have overstayed their "temporary entry" ?   Where do they live ?  How many are working on the black market or living on their wits ?   Also, for example, is a voter the same person that was registered on the electoral list ?

Furthermore, to travel abroad Passports are generally required, but identity cards could  facilitate re-entry and also contain additional information like an identity number for tax purposes.

Theresa May, the Prime Minister, must seriously weigh the pros and cons of issuing Identity Cards, particularly if she really wants and intends to control immigration !



Saturday, 16 September 2017


The next significant event in the EU is the German Election on September 24, 2017 which will decide whether Angela Merkel retains her post as Chancellor.

This will also indicate whether there is any NEW hope that the EU could finally start updating its Treaties, by changing some of the old basic principles which no longer defend EU citizens in this changing World ! 

Merkel and Germany seem to want the EU to become one political unity with one Government !   BUT would such an objective really suit all the 28 member countries of the EU ?   At present this does not seem to be the case.

The Rules being applied concerning Immigrants or Migrants or Refugees from the Middle East or elsewhere are far from satisfactory.  

Should all external frontiers of the EU not be policed to increase the security of EU citizens, particularly now when Terrorists are so active ?    Who should secure either the internal or external frontiers of the EU ?

In fact, is the principle of the Freedom of Movement in the EU of goods or persons, still tenable as it is at present defined in Treaties ?

Finally, is "BREXIT" not a good reason to update Treaties ?   Or will this only be done when Britain has "PAID" a punitive price to leave ?  


Thursday, 14 September 2017

Saturday, 9 September 2017

Friday, 8 September 2017

Friday, 1 September 2017


Pour la rentrée scolaire 2017, les communes ont la possibilité de revenir à la semaine de 4 jours ou de garder  le rythme de 4 jours et demi imposé  par la loi de 2013.




Today's edition of the Daily Mail (September 1, 2017) reveals the instant and addictive effects of the drug SPICE.   The pictures of addicts in several towns in Britain are enough to worry any right thinking citizen,  particularly parents.

SPICE is increasingly available and is much cheaper than Cannabis !   The recipe of each batch of the drug produced can vary, as can the effects on an addict.   Users are almost immediately "knocked-out cold" !

The maximum penalty for supplying SPICE is a prison sentence of 7 years, but is this an effective deterrent ?    Police forces throughout Britain admit they do not have the means to prevent  increasing addiction.

The foregoing summary serves as an alert, but another consideration needs serious attention.  If the instant effect of SPICE is that it could kill, giving or selling SPICE to anyone must be severely deterred !   It could be an act of Manslaughter or even Murder !

To stop the spread of SPICE any punishment must be severe !



Wednesday, 16 August 2017


Theoretically the IAAF wants records to be  achieved by one individual athlete, without any help from other competitors.   Alas, instances have occurred when an athlete  has been helped to win by fellow nationals, or been helped by a conniving friend, in the same race.

Will the IAAF decide to limit competitors to one per country, to eliminate "team help" in non-lane races ?   Would such a decision not encourage smaller countries to participate more by sending  more athletes ? 

Such a decision could also reveal the need for Relay Races or Team Races with 3, 4 or 5 athletes over the longer distances.   That innovation would permit the former "fellow national helpers" to compete in a more appropriate race !

Long team races would also definitely interest many of the African Countries : they have an enormous depth of natural long distance running talent.                                               




Monday, 14 August 2017


In the 2017 World Athletics Championships in London last week, were events won by athletes, with the help of  one or two other Competitors from their own country in the same race ?   

What is questionable is whether it is right to adopt as an individual World Record, a performance which is achieved when other countrymen are also participating in the same race ?   Should such a record not be registered only as a "National Record" but never as a "World Record" ?

In races longer than 400 metres, competitors are not obliged to remain in "lanes".   This is when "team" runners, could and do sometimes, start to help each other ! 

Hence the question arises whether all current IAAF World Records have been correctly recorded ? 




Friday, 11 August 2017


In the 5 000 meters semi-final the two Ethiopian competitors ran as a team.   It was quite clear their aim was to prevent Mo Farah from winning the race, but he managed to slip through and was second.

Farah will have noted that the other semi-final was again won by an Ethiopian.   This means  there will be a team of 3 Ethiopians to "look after" Farah in the Final on Saturday, 12th August !   The aim will again be to prevent Farah from getting to the front of the race, either by boxing him in on the inside lane, or by making it hard for him to overtake them on the outside ! 

Farah has the experience and the physical strength to win through but, are there any rules to prevent or discourage "unsportman like" behaviour ?   How many times this week have we seen "accidents" resulting in athletes being tripped-up or knocked-over, or even being spiked ? 


Tuesday, 18 July 2017

Monday, 17 July 2017


Many benefits are expected when electric cars are eventually mass produced.  The benefits are regularly highlighted worldwide by "green" political parties.  What is neglected is the havoc which will be caused by the regular production and development of electric cars !

Every electric car produced and sold logically means one less petrol driven car will be bought !   Will ALL current car producers then have a competitive electric replacement to maintain their own production lines ?   Or will they slowly be obliged to close their plants ?

There are Companies which have subsidiary production plants in several overseas countries !   Will these "subs" remain viable and in operation ?  

Electric cars need batteries, which will need recharging.  Will there be sufficient "recharging points" conveniently available everywhere, just like the petrol stations at present ?

Ultimately, will cars not be developed to have two batteries, one for current driving usage and one for recharging itself while the car is moving ?   Is this not THE ultimate future aim ? 

Finally, will Governments not lose an important amount of tax at present levied on Petrol for cars ?  Could they impose an equally heavy level of tax on Electric cars ?

Could there also not be havoc in the area of "Unemployment"  ?   Already Governments seek to reduce their overhead costs, but will they now also plan for the foregoing problems ?    Probably not !

They will leave that for their elected "successors" in the late 2020's  !  

Furthermore, Totalitarian Countries are perhaps better placed for long term planning.  They have fewer election problems. 



Friday, 7 July 2017


A meeting of all 28 EU Ministers of the Interior has taken place in Tallinn, the Capital city of Estonia, to discuss problems provoked by the increasing number of desperate "migrants" from Africa arriving on the shores of Italy.  

The number of migrants who perish at sea is also rising despite valiant international efforts.  BUT, how many active and rich "refugee smugglers" have been brought to justice ?  How many of their Vessels have been destroyed ?   Statistics are not often published ! 

Is the time still not yet ripe, for all the "Leaders" of the EU to meet, to formulate and adopt an Official Policy which selects and defines which Migrants are permitted to enter the EU ?

How can the EU pretend to be a "UNION" when external and interior Borders are not securely manned ?  Any migrant once in the EU has the freedom to circulate and settle anywhere.

Why do some countries refuse EU Migrants or new arrivals ?   Germany needs labourers for its factories, but does it also welcome relatives ?

Should the stay of Refugees from the Middle East War not be limited, to encourage them to return later to help  rebuild their country ?  

The EU alone cannot, without the active help of African and Middle East Countries, solve all these problems.  EU rules appear to be stop-gap solutions :  in fact, basic EU Rules and Principles enshrined in Treaties need to be updated and modernised, to permit the adoption of a comprehensive Policy on the control of Migrants.

When could one expect action on this question ?  This is not clear, because General Elections in Germany and Austria are imminent and will also take place in Italy next Spring !   No Leaders want to "rock the boat" !



Thursday, 6 July 2017


After its disappointing 2017 Presidential and General Election results, it would appear that the National Front (F N) could now abandon its fundamental Election Promise, to do a "FREXIT" !   At the time, this meant that France would "exit" the Eurozone and would then adopt a new French Franc as its currency, to ensure a more prosperous, economic future for France !

Neither Marine Le Pen nor Florian Philippot the vice President of FN, were capable of explaining the technical means to Electors of how France could leave the EU and successfully adopt the Franc !   Likewise the "Cost" of the operation of leaving the EU, was never explained either !

As early as January 6, 2017, the first of three articles in this Blog (1) forewarned FN leaders what to expect, if Electors were not informed how leaving the EU would be satisfactorily achieved !

During the "Inquest" by FN of what went wrong in the Elections, several other points will be raised but the FREXIT disaster should not be ignored !

(1)  - "FN must explain any "Frexit" hopes !", dated 6/1/2017.
      - "France : National Front (FN) makes 144 "Promises", dated 12/2/2017.
      - "Could France leave the EUROZONE ?", dated 3/5/2017.

Sunday, 25 June 2017


Although Russia elects its President and DUMA MPs, it is a Totalitarian Country.   The  Constitution ensures that the President can nominate 50% of the MPs ! 

Next year in March, the Presidential Election will take place and it seems that Putin already has fears that an "opposition" Candidate could stand against him. 

In particular, one such Candidate could be Alexei Navalny, a lawyer who is a well known anti-corruption leader.  He and his brother, have  already been imprisoned and he was again arrested recently, because he "caused disturbances" while addressing supporters !

Putin is a very rich man according to the Forbes List estimations (70 billion Dollars), which is not bad for a Politician !   This riles Navalny and all his supporters.

It is quite clear Navalny still runs the risk of more "punishment" on trumped-up charges to prevent him standing as a candidate for the Presidency in March.

Earlier this month, June 2017, film of violent Police repression of Navalny supporters could be seen on the Internet.  Last year reports indicated that there were revolts in 80 Russian Cities.  This number must now be nearer 160 !

Also, if ever Navalny is prevented from standing as a candidate against Putin, certainly numerous other city leaders could replace him !

But is Putin hesitating ?   He has not yet said he intends to stand !  In fact, can he really be sure to win ?



Wednesday, 21 June 2017


The short statement below shows the impact of the 2017 "Macron Tsunami" on other Party MPs in the French Parliamentary Assembly :

                                                        2012        2017

       Socialist Party                           258           30
       National Front Party                     2             8
       Communist Party                        11           10
       Unsubdued Party                        11            17
       The Republicans                       193          130

       Macron "en marche" Party           0          308
       MoDem Party                                 2            42

       Sundry others                            100            32
                                                          ____          ____
           Total number of MPs             577           577

In just over one year Macron, who had been the Adviser of President Hollande, founded his Party, was elected   President of France and then his Party alone obtained a Majority in the National Assembly !

One says that success breeds success !  This is clearly what happened here, as the Statement above reveals, but it also resulted in the destruction of the two former traditional Parties which had taken turns in Governing France, since the creation of the 5th Republic by De Gaule in 1958 !

Electors had heard all the reasons why taxes were escalating and costs were rising, but after the desasterous Presidency of Hollande French Electors all wanted a complete change !   Macron promised he would change France ! 

When he became the new President, Macron promised Equality of the Sexes in politics and a new Moral Code in politics .  In his new "en Marche" Party there were more than 200 neophyte Candidates !   Voters flocked to back his party !

This is only a part of the Macron Tsunami effect and it has not yet ended.   

Even today, the third day after the General Election, four Ministers have either resigned or not been retained in the Government due to the new Moral Code.  

We must patiently wait to see what happens next ! 




Sunday, 18 June 2017


After five years of the catastrophic Presidency by François Hollande, the vote has confirmed that Electors really do want a fundamental political change in the way the country has been governed.

Hollande failed to stem rising Unemployment, increased Taxes and National Debt, stifled Industry with rising Social Costs and finally incurred the wrath of Trade Unions !

The General Election vote today also reveals that he has completely destroyed the Socialist Party which had 279 MPs 5 years ago, but now will have only about 34 when final figures are available.

The turn out of Electors today is about 43.4%, which is even lower than last Sunday when 48.7% voted.  Does this mean that the French have lost all faith in politics ?

Today the "En Marche Party" created by  President Macron, has a commanding Majority in the National Assembly with about 355 MPs.   His recent election, to replace Hollande, has inspired Electors who seek a change !  
The way President Macron has performed since his Election has been well accepted.   He now has the chance and the time to make his mark by "changing  France as it is now" !






Wednesday, 7 June 2017


After the Presidential Election, it was clear that Electors wanted a change of Political actors.   However the possibility of the election of a Hung Parliament was a fair bet !

This was before the onset of Macron-mania ! The strong  handshake with Donald Trump had been widely publicised and seemed to have impressed everybody in France.

The "Republic En Marche" party founded by Macron, is now expected to obtain a commanding majority in the next National Assembly.  The voting will be on June 11 and 18.

This was supported by the unexpected publication last Sunday, of the results of the 11 seats for French Nationals living overseas.   In 10 of the seats the "En Marche" Party was leading.  Normally such results are only made known after Electors in France have Voted, to prevent them being influenced. 

Should such interference not be sanctioned ? 




Tuesday, 6 June 2017


When Terrorists suddenly strike and kill innocent civilians , the Elected Leaders of European countries are all utterly confused, at a total loss, about what should be done, or could be done to ensure more security. 

This is in spite of the fact that many of the Leaders were formerly Ministers (of Justice, of the Interior, of Defence....) but even so, when attrocities occur in their own Country, they do nothing new which could perhaps avert another Terrorist attack !  No one leads the way !

Before attacking, all Terrorists plan;  they also receive help and advice as well as arms and explosives !  Some now just use knives or drive a car to kill !   If Terrorists survive their attacks, they always know where they can safely hide afterwards.

The Laws of most Western Countries punish those who "aid and abet others to commit a crime" !   So why are so few of such criminals punished ?  Why is the punishment not doubled in the case of Terrorists ?

WHY is there no Law which would punish friends or neighbours of Terrorists who DO NOT inform the Police of their "doubts", when they "know"  full well, something is being planned ? 

How is it possible that the Police, in France as well as in Britain, "so often state" that a terrorist was "known" to them, was on their files as a suspect and has now become responsible for the latest attrocity ?  Something  must be wrong in the Police Organisation if so many suspects have been left free to kill !

The day when Western Leaders accept that Extremist Muslims are leading a Total War effort against all "non believers", will they adopt  retaliatory mesures to fight back and thereby really protect their innocent civilians,  electors and taxpayers ? 

One can only hope that will be the case ! 


Sunday, 4 June 2017


How many more bloody Atrocities by Terrorists must citizens and electors witness before Politicians feel obliged to introduce measures  which actually improve the safety of all their citizens ? 

After every Atrocity, in all major EU countries, Politicians express their outrage, but nothing happens, nothing changes !   There are never any new measures to punish or even to "deter" Terrorists.

Yet it is well known that there are several "Terrorist Cells" in most countries, actively recruiting and training "suicide bombers", all for the "Glory of Allah" !

Any Terrorist caught alive, risks only spending many years in Prison, at the expense of taxpayers, sometimes with the chance to convert gullible short term inmates to their cause !

The ideal of soft EU Justice must change !  This extreme form of Islamism uses premeditated murder to conquer western countries !   It is a new form of War and the "soldiers" are not loving missionaries or the harmless worshippers of Allah !

The Penalty of Death must be re-introduced for all active  terrorists, whether they have killed or are only at the planning stage.  

Politicians only talk of closing frontiers, but why ? Some Terrorists are EU born !  They have the right to circulate !

What is needed is a totally committed EU "Terrorist-Tracking" Police Force !   That would be much more effective !



Saturday, 3 June 2017


While Obama was President, the  USA was one of 195 countries like China, Russia and all EU member countries, to sign the Climate Agreement in Paris in 2015.

Now the new President of the USA, Donald  Trump, has decided that it would be in the better interests of the USA to withdraw from this Agreement.

This would help to reduce US unemployment and permit the US to exploit its huge natural reserves of coal, gas and oil.   As Trump says, "America comes first" !

The USA will continue being a leading World polluter !  

Trump has imposed his will despite the fact that there was huge cross-Party opposition in the USA before his decision.  There is now huge disappointment world-wide.

How can one justify saving US unemployment when this  same decision also endangers millions of lives and even the future of our planet ? 




Thursday, 1 June 2017


It is now clear for everyone in France, that 39 year old Emmanuel Macron, who was unexpectedly elected as the President of France on May 7, is a man with a mission !

To form a Government before the General Election Macron has plundered chosen  personalities from the Socialists, the Centre and right Parties : the Prime Minister, Edouard Philippe comes from "The Republican" Party on the right !   

But, the new young President needs the support of MPs in the National Assembly (General Election votes are on 11th and 18th June).  Ideally he really wants a majority for the Party he has created, "La Republique en Marche".

Most of the candidates chosen to stand for his party are not from the political world.   At first no one thought that any of the "first time" candidates,  who had never stood in an election before, had the slightest chance to win and become an MP.  This initial reaction is now changing ; electors are listening and slowly  warming to Macron's ideas.

Since his election, Macron has also carefully chosen and organised his appearances on television.  He has been seen only with top personalities like Merkel from the EU, Putin from Russia and Trump from the USA !   A way to ensure his "jupitarian presidency "....

After the disasterous 5 years of Socialist Governmental Rule, directed by President Hollande, changes for a better future are welcome. 


Saturday, 27 May 2017


After the many scandals in French political life, not to speak of those which were never discovered, President Macron wants to tighten the lax rules, to prevent repetitions in the future.

This is admirable and generally speaking everyone, particularly Electors, will salute his efforts.

However, one proposition is to limit MPs to three mandates !  Normally a mandate is for 5 years, but it could be shorter.  Even 15 years is a short professional life.

Some MPs devote their whole lives, 40 years, to politics.  But, to limit the age of candidates to stand for election would seem correct !  

Is it not later in political life that MPs possess the experience to avoid pitfalls for their countries ?  Limiting their longevity as MPs could be a costly mistake !

Finally, is it not the right of Electors to decide who they want or not want, as their MP ? 


Friday, 26 May 2017


OPEC (Organisation of Petrol Exporting Countries) has simply extended its last deal until March 2018, but does this really change anything ? 

Market Oil Prices have been controled to a certain extent in the past by Saudi Arabia, but this is financially costly !  Another key factor is whether the volume of oil produced by the 12 member countries of OPEC, can and is effectively controled.   Have any sanctions ever been imposed, if the volume of oil production of a country has been too high ?    

There are also other non OPEC Oil Producing countries in South America, as well as Russia and the USA which produce Oil profitably. 

Added to this is the certainty, in the next 5 to 10 years, electric cars will be mass produced !  This will severely affect the sales of Oil and Petrol.  

One can therefore, also anticipate that Oil producing companies may well want to invest some of their billions of Dollars of oil sale profits, to become a part of the chain of future Electricity Suppliers !         



Thursday, 25 May 2017


Is the visit to Europe of the US President Trump, just after the Muslim Terrorist attack in Manchester, not the perfect occasion to discuss a realistic Plan of Attack, or Plan of Defence, on an international basis to counter World-wide Terrorism ?

Just talking, without realistic action afterwards, has never solved anything ! 

To be blunt, the problem the World faces is "Terrorist Attacks" which  destroy the Human Rights of innocent Citizens, their right to live ! 

The problem is NOT at all to ensure the Human Rights of Terrorists, whether they have killed or were only at the planning stage, to kill haphazardly !

When Terrorists are caught, should they not be locked-up in a secure, specialised Prison without any possible contact with other types of inmate ?   Reports exist of Muslim Terrorists who while in prison, have converted gullible inmates to their cause !

The next obstacle then becomes the lack of prison space to house "terrorists" apart from other inmates !  To solve this URGENT problem, should countries not relocate all the petty criminals from just one Prison, which could then be destined temporarily to house only Terrorists !

Too much "Soft Justice" is already dispensed in some countries just to prevent overcrowded prisons !  The only way to avoid overcrowding and to safeguard the rights of Electors, would seem to be for Politicians to order more prisons to be built ! 



Wednesday, 24 May 2017


Turkey, a member of the NATO Alliance, has vetoed an intention to permit Austria, which is not a member of NATO, to participate in NATO military exercices. 

Turkey has a pending application to join the EU, but will the recent diplomatic activity of the Dictator of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, not provoke a complete reassessment by the West to decide whether Turkey is still a valid Ally ?  

Is Turkey primarily interested and orientated by Russian objectives and policies, or those of the West ?   It should be noted that Turkey regularly purchases its military requirements from Russia. 

Would the possibility to dock Russian vessels in a Turkish port on the Mediterranean coast, not attract  Putin and Russia ?  Will that not be the next move ?

What is quite clear is that neither a Dictator, nor a Totalitarian country like Turkey, correspond with the ideals of European Union Treaties or with the aims of NATO.


Tuesday, 23 May 2017


Terrorists have once again struck:  22 people were killed and at least 50 others were injured at a packed pop concert by Ariana Grande in Manchester.

One cannot always deter terrorists, particularly  those who have the intention to die as "heroes of Islam" when they explode their bomb.

They are are generally part of an Extremist  Organisation which is at war with all countries.  They want to impose their extremist interpretation of Islam.  
Yet, many countries world-wide have abolished the Death Penalty, inluding all the Countries in the EU.  Alas, to introduce even an exception to EU rules is virtually impossible : the Unanimity of all EU countries is required for any change, even a small exception. 

This simply means there is no real deterrent left to dissuade Terrorists, or even recidivist killers !  Should surviving killers and those who have  aided them in their murderous enterprises, not be executed ?  

If Britain leaves the EU, after its "BREXIT", would it not be simple "Common Sense" for Britain to adopt the "Penalty of Death", for Terrorists and others who are guilty of aiding and abetting them in mass killings ?  

Would other countries not follow suit, to provide more security for their citizens ?
Finally, why should taxpayers be obliged to bear the cost of Terrorists, who then languish in Prison for the rest of their lives ?