Monday, 17 July 2017
Many benefits are expected when electric cars are eventually mass produced. The benefits are regularly highlighted worldwide by "green" political parties. What is neglected is the havoc which will be caused by the regular production and development of electric cars !
Every electric car produced and sold logically means one less petrol driven car will be bought ! Will ALL current car producers then have a competitive electric replacement to maintain their own production lines ? Or will they slowly be obliged to close their plants ?
There are Companies which have subsidiary production plants in several overseas countries ! Will these "subs" remain viable and in operation ?
Electric cars need batteries, which will need recharging. Will there be sufficient "recharging points" conveniently available everywhere, just like the petrol stations at present ?
Ultimately, will cars not be developed to have two batteries, one for current driving usage and one for recharging itself while the car is moving ? Is this not THE ultimate future aim ?
Finally, will Governments not lose an important amount of tax at present levied on Petrol for cars ? Could they impose an equally heavy level of tax on Electric cars ?
Could there also not be havoc in the area of "Unemployment" ? Already Governments seek to reduce their overhead costs, but will they now also plan for the foregoing problems ? Probably not !
They will leave that for their elected "successors" in the late 2020's !
Furthermore, Totalitarian Countries are perhaps better placed for long term planning. They have fewer election problems.
Friday, 7 July 2017
A meeting of all 28 EU Ministers of the Interior has taken place in Tallinn, the Capital city of Estonia, to discuss problems provoked by the increasing number of desperate "migrants" from Africa arriving on the shores of Italy.
The number of migrants who perish at sea is also rising despite valiant international efforts. BUT, how many active and rich "refugee smugglers" have been brought to justice ? How many of their Vessels have been destroyed ? Statistics are not often published !
Is the time still not yet ripe, for all the "Leaders" of the EU to meet, to formulate and adopt an Official Policy which selects and defines which Migrants are permitted to enter the EU ?
How can the EU pretend to be a "UNION" when external and interior Borders are not securely manned ? Any migrant once in the EU has the freedom to circulate and settle anywhere.
Why do some countries refuse EU Migrants or new arrivals ? Germany needs labourers for its factories, but does it also welcome relatives ?
Should the stay of Refugees from the Middle East War not be limited, to encourage them to return later to help rebuild their country ?
The EU alone cannot, without the active help of African and Middle East Countries, solve all these problems. EU rules appear to be stop-gap solutions : in fact, basic EU Rules and Principles enshrined in Treaties need to be updated and modernised, to permit the adoption of a comprehensive Policy on the control of Migrants.
When could one expect action on this question ? This is not clear, because General Elections in Germany and Austria are imminent and will also take place in Italy next Spring ! No Leaders want to "rock the boat" !
Thursday, 6 July 2017
After its disappointing 2017 Presidential and General Election results, it would appear that the National Front (F N) could now abandon its fundamental Election Promise, to do a "FREXIT" ! At the time, this meant that France would "exit" the Eurozone and would then adopt a new French Franc as its currency, to ensure a more prosperous, economic future for France !
Neither Marine Le Pen nor Florian Philippot the vice President of FN, were capable of explaining the technical means to Electors of how France could leave the EU and successfully adopt the Franc ! Likewise the "Cost" of the operation of leaving the EU, was never explained either !
As early as January 6, 2017, the first of three articles in this Blog (1) forewarned FN leaders what to expect, if Electors were not informed how leaving the EU would be satisfactorily achieved !
During the "Inquest" by FN of what went wrong in the Elections, several other points will be raised but the FREXIT disaster should not be ignored !
(1) - "FN must explain any "Frexit" hopes !", dated 6/1/2017.
- "France : National Front (FN) makes 144 "Promises", dated 12/2/2017.
- "Could France leave the EUROZONE ?", dated 3/5/2017.
Sunday, 25 June 2017
Although Russia elects its President and DUMA MPs, it is a Totalitarian Country. The Constitution ensures that the President can nominate 50% of the MPs !
Next year in March, the Presidential Election will take place and it seems that Putin already has fears that an "opposition" Candidate could stand against him.
In particular, one such Candidate could be Alexei Navalny, a lawyer who is a well known anti-corruption leader. He and his brother, have already been imprisoned and he was again arrested recently, because he "caused disturbances" while addressing supporters !
Putin is a very rich man according to the Forbes List estimations (70 billion Dollars), which is not bad for a Politician ! This riles Navalny and all his supporters.
It is quite clear Navalny still runs the risk of more "punishment" on trumped-up charges to prevent him standing as a candidate for the Presidency in March.
Earlier this month, June 2017, film of violent Police repression of Navalny supporters could be seen on the Internet. Last year reports indicated that there were revolts in 80 Russian Cities. This number must now be nearer 160 !
Also, if ever Navalny is prevented from standing as a candidate against Putin, certainly numerous other city leaders could replace him !
But is Putin hesitating ? He has not yet said he intends to stand ! In fact, can he really be sure to win ?
Wednesday, 21 June 2017
The short statement below shows the impact of the 2017 "Macron Tsunami" on other Party MPs in the French Parliamentary Assembly :
Socialist Party 258 30
National Front Party 2 8
Communist Party 11 10
Unsubdued Party 11 17
The Republicans 193 130
Macron "en marche" Party 0 308
MoDem Party 2 42
Sundry others 100 32
Total number of MPs 577 577
In just over one year Macron, who had been the Adviser of President Hollande, founded his Party, was elected President of France and then his Party alone obtained a Majority in the National Assembly !
One says that success breeds success ! This is clearly what happened here, as the Statement above reveals, but it also resulted in the destruction of the two former traditional Parties which had taken turns in Governing France, since the creation of the 5th Republic by De Gaule in 1958 !
Electors had heard all the reasons why taxes were escalating and costs were rising, but after the desasterous Presidency of Hollande French Electors all wanted a complete change ! Macron promised he would change France !
When he became the new President, Macron promised Equality of the Sexes in politics and a new Moral Code in politics . In his new "en Marche" Party there were more than 200 neophyte Candidates ! Voters flocked to back his party !
This is only a part of the Macron Tsunami effect and it has not yet ended.
Even today, the third day after the General Election, four Ministers have either resigned or not been retained in the Government due to the new Moral Code.
We must patiently wait to see what happens next !
Sunday, 18 June 2017
After five years of the catastrophic Presidency by François Hollande, the vote has confirmed that Electors really do want a fundamental political change in the way the country has been governed.
Hollande failed to stem rising Unemployment, increased Taxes and National Debt, stifled Industry with rising Social Costs and finally incurred the wrath of Trade Unions !
The General Election vote today also reveals that he has completely destroyed the Socialist Party which had 279 MPs 5 years ago, but now will have only about 34 when final figures are available.
The turn out of Electors today is about 43.4%, which is even lower than last Sunday when 48.7% voted. Does this mean that the French have lost all faith in politics ?
Today the "En Marche Party" created by President Macron, has a commanding Majority in the National Assembly with about 355 MPs. His recent election, to replace Hollande, has inspired Electors who seek a change !
The way President Macron has performed since his Election has been well accepted. He now has the chance and the time to make his mark by "changing France as it is now" !
Wednesday, 7 June 2017
After the Presidential Election, it was clear that Electors wanted a change of Political actors. However the possibility of the election of a Hung Parliament was a fair bet !
This was before the onset of Macron-mania ! The strong handshake with Donald Trump had been widely publicised and seemed to have impressed everybody in France.
The "Republic En Marche" party founded by Macron, is now expected to obtain a commanding majority in the next National Assembly. The voting will be on June 11 and 18.
This was supported by the unexpected publication last Sunday, of the results of the 11 seats for French Nationals living overseas. In 10 of the seats the "En Marche" Party was leading. Normally such results are only made known after Electors in France have Voted, to prevent them being influenced.
Should such interference not be sanctioned ?
Tuesday, 6 June 2017
When Terrorists suddenly strike and kill innocent civilians , the Elected Leaders of European countries are all utterly confused, at a total loss, about what should be done, or could be done to ensure more security.
This is in spite of the fact that many of the Leaders were formerly Ministers (of Justice, of the Interior, of Defence....) but even so, when attrocities occur in their own Country, they do nothing new which could perhaps avert another Terrorist attack ! No one leads the way !
Before attacking, all Terrorists plan; they also receive help and advice as well as arms and explosives ! Some now just use knives or drive a car to kill ! If Terrorists survive their attacks, they always know where they can safely hide afterwards.
The Laws of most Western Countries punish those who "aid and abet others to commit a crime" ! So why are so few of such criminals punished ? Why is the punishment not doubled in the case of Terrorists ?
WHY is there no Law which would punish friends or neighbours of Terrorists who DO NOT inform the Police of their "doubts", when they "know" full well, something is being planned ?
How is it possible that the Police, in France as well as in Britain, "so often state" that a terrorist was "known" to them, was on their files as a suspect and has now become responsible for the latest attrocity ? Something must be wrong in the Police Organisation if so many suspects have been left free to kill !
The day when Western Leaders accept that Extremist Muslims are leading a Total War effort against all "non believers", will they adopt retaliatory mesures to fight back and thereby really protect their innocent civilians, electors and taxpayers ?
One can only hope that will be the case !
Sunday, 4 June 2017
How many more bloody Atrocities by Terrorists must citizens and electors witness before Politicians feel obliged to introduce measures which actually improve the safety of all their citizens ?
After every Atrocity, in all major EU countries, Politicians express their outrage, but nothing happens, nothing changes ! There are never any new measures to punish or even to "deter" Terrorists.
Yet it is well known that there are several "Terrorist Cells" in most countries, actively recruiting and training "suicide bombers", all for the "Glory of Allah" !
Any Terrorist caught alive, risks only spending many years in Prison, at the expense of taxpayers, sometimes with the chance to convert gullible short term inmates to their cause !
The ideal of soft EU Justice must change ! This extreme form of Islamism uses premeditated murder to conquer western countries ! It is a new form of War and the "soldiers" are not loving missionaries or the harmless worshippers of Allah !
The Penalty of Death must be re-introduced for all active terrorists, whether they have killed or are only at the planning stage.
Politicians only talk of closing frontiers, but why ? Some Terrorists are EU born ! They have the right to circulate !
What is needed is a totally committed EU "Terrorist-Tracking" Police Force ! That would be much more effective !
Saturday, 3 June 2017
While Obama was President, the USA was one of 195 countries like China, Russia and all EU member countries, to sign the Climate Agreement in Paris in 2015.
Now the new President of the USA, Donald Trump, has decided that it would be in the better interests of the USA to withdraw from this Agreement.
This would help to reduce US unemployment and permit the US to exploit its huge natural reserves of coal, gas and oil. As Trump says, "America comes first" !
The USA will continue being a leading World polluter !
Trump has imposed his will despite the fact that there was huge cross-Party opposition in the USA before his decision. There is now huge disappointment world-wide.
How can one justify saving US unemployment when this same decision also endangers millions of lives and even the future of our planet ?
Thursday, 1 June 2017
It is now clear for everyone in France, that 39 year old Emmanuel Macron, who was unexpectedly elected as the President of France on May 7, is a man with a mission !
To form a Government before the General Election Macron has plundered chosen personalities from the Socialists, the Centre and right Parties : the Prime Minister, Edouard Philippe comes from "The Republican" Party on the right !
But, the new young President needs the support of MPs in the National Assembly (General Election votes are on 11th and 18th June). Ideally he really wants a majority for the Party he has created, "La Republique en Marche".
Most of the candidates chosen to stand for his party are not from the political world. At first no one thought that any of the "first time" candidates, who had never stood in an election before, had the slightest chance to win and become an MP. This initial reaction is now changing ; electors are listening and slowly warming to Macron's ideas.
Since his election, Macron has also carefully chosen and organised his appearances on television. He has been seen only with top personalities like Merkel from the EU, Putin from Russia and Trump from the USA ! A way to ensure his "jupitarian presidency "....
After the disasterous 5 years of Socialist Governmental Rule, directed by President Hollande, changes for a better future are welcome.
Saturday, 27 May 2017
After the many scandals in French political life, not to speak of those which were never discovered, President Macron wants to tighten the lax rules, to prevent repetitions in the future.
This is admirable and generally speaking everyone, particularly Electors, will salute his efforts.
However, one proposition is to limit MPs to three mandates ! Normally a mandate is for 5 years, but it could be shorter. Even 15 years is a short professional life.
Some MPs devote their whole lives, 40 years, to politics. But, to limit the age of candidates to stand for election would seem correct !
Is it not later in political life that MPs possess the experience to avoid pitfalls for their countries ? Limiting their longevity as MPs could be a costly mistake !
Finally, is it not the right of Electors to decide who they want or not want, as their MP ?
Friday, 26 May 2017
OPEC (Organisation of Petrol Exporting Countries) has simply extended its last deal until March 2018, but does this really change anything ?
Market Oil Prices have been controled to a certain extent in the past by Saudi Arabia, but this is financially costly ! Another key factor is whether the volume of oil produced by the 12 member countries of OPEC, can and is effectively controled. Have any sanctions ever been imposed, if the volume of oil production of a country has been too high ?
There are also other non OPEC Oil Producing countries in South America, as well as Russia and the USA which produce Oil profitably.
Added to this is the certainty, in the next 5 to 10 years, electric cars will be mass produced ! This will severely affect the sales of Oil and Petrol.
One can therefore, also anticipate that Oil producing companies may well want to invest some of their billions of Dollars of oil sale profits, to become a part of the chain of future Electricity Suppliers !
Thursday, 25 May 2017
Is the visit to Europe of the US President Trump, just after the Muslim Terrorist attack in Manchester, not the perfect occasion to discuss a realistic Plan of Attack, or Plan of Defence, on an international basis to counter World-wide Terrorism ?
Just talking, without realistic action afterwards, has never solved anything !
To be blunt, the problem the World faces is "Terrorist Attacks" which destroy the Human Rights of innocent Citizens, their right to live !
The problem is NOT at all to ensure the Human Rights of Terrorists, whether they have killed or were only at the planning stage, to kill haphazardly !
When Terrorists are caught, should they not be locked-up in a secure, specialised Prison without any possible contact with other types of inmate ? Reports exist of Muslim Terrorists who while in prison, have converted gullible inmates to their cause !
The next obstacle then becomes the lack of prison space to house "terrorists" apart from other inmates ! To solve this URGENT problem, should countries not relocate all the petty criminals from just one Prison, which could then be destined temporarily to house only Terrorists !
Too much "Soft Justice" is already dispensed in some countries just to prevent overcrowded prisons ! The only way to avoid overcrowding and to safeguard the rights of Electors, would seem to be for Politicians to order more prisons to be built !
Wednesday, 24 May 2017
Turkey, a member of the NATO Alliance, has vetoed an intention to permit Austria, which is not a member of NATO, to participate in NATO military exercices.
Turkey has a pending application to join the EU, but will the recent diplomatic activity of the Dictator of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, not provoke a complete reassessment by the West to decide whether Turkey is still a valid Ally ?
Is Turkey primarily interested and orientated by Russian objectives and policies, or those of the West ? It should be noted that Turkey regularly purchases its military requirements from Russia.
Would the possibility to dock Russian vessels in a Turkish port on the Mediterranean coast, not attract Putin and Russia ? Will that not be the next move ?
What is quite clear is that neither a Dictator, nor a Totalitarian country like Turkey, correspond with the ideals of European Union Treaties or with the aims of NATO.
Tuesday, 23 May 2017
Terrorists have once again struck: 22 people were killed and at least 50 others were injured at a packed pop concert by Ariana Grande in Manchester.
One cannot always deter terrorists, particularly those who have the intention to die as "heroes of Islam" when they explode their bomb.
They are are generally part of an Extremist Organisation which is at war with all countries. They want to impose their extremist interpretation of Islam.
Yet, many countries world-wide have abolished the Death Penalty, inluding all the Countries in the EU. Alas, to introduce even an exception to EU rules is virtually impossible : the Unanimity of all EU countries is required for any change, even a small exception.
This simply means there is no real deterrent left to dissuade Terrorists, or even recidivist killers ! Should surviving killers and those who have aided them in their murderous enterprises, not be executed ?
If Britain leaves the EU, after its "BREXIT", would it not be simple "Common Sense" for Britain to adopt the "Penalty of Death", for Terrorists and others who are guilty of aiding and abetting them in mass killings ?
Would other countries not follow suit, to provide more security for their citizens ?
Finally, why should taxpayers be obliged to bear the cost of Terrorists, who then languish in Prison for the rest of their lives ?
Monday, 22 May 2017
The first "Macron law" will introduce a moral code of conduct to be observed by MPs .
The law will ensure a complete control of MPs' official Expense Allowances which previously were not subjected to any official scrutiny or anything like an independent "audit".
Other measures will ensure MP's probity : for example, employing family members will be forbidden. That will avoid a repeat of the Fillon scandal recently. This is, therefore, a "common sense" solution.
Further fine details of this projected law will become known soon.
This Law will be one of the first votes in the next National Assembly, after the Election on June 18 .
The very fact that at last, MPs' expenses will be properly controled and justified, will certainly endear Macron to all right thinking electors ! This will also improve the chances of his "Republican En Marche" candidates !
Sunday, 21 May 2017
The way Trade Unions in France are now ready to judge any measures by the Macron Government, is strangely similar to what Margaret Thatcher faced when she was elected in 1980 !
Britain had been faced with a six month bus strike, which the Socialist Prime Minister, James Callaghan, was incapable of stopping ! His Government was defeated and Thatcher was later obliged to "clip" some Union Rights.
The French President may use edicts to impose certain changes quickly and Trade Union Leaders have already said this could lead to opposition from Unions. Macron was the Minister of the Economy and also President Hollande's advisor : he thus already has front line experience of stubborn opposition from Unions.
But, French Unions are quick to use Strikes and Marches to protect the Rights of Workers which sometimes were obtained many years ago.
In a changing world such Rights sometimes can stifle Employers, just when they are expected to act, to make their companies more competitive, with the sole aim to avoid a Financial disaster like a Liquidation.
In such cases Trade Unions must also realise that they too, have obligations to help ensure the future of a business !
Saturday, 20 May 2017
Bombshell upsets culminated in the recent election of President Macron, but others will now also have a profound impact on the General Election campaign of the 577 MPs for the National Assembly. This officially starts on Monday May 22, 2017.
Any serious predictions of who will win are not really possible for several reasons :
- Macron has created a new Party which will contest 526 of the seats .
- Any Candidate must renounce his function of Mayor if he is elected as an MP: more than 200 former sitting MPs have decided not to stand for re-election in June this time : some have retired but some prefer to remain the Mayor of their town.
- The disasterous 5 year Presidency of Hollande has created serious splits and destroyed the Socialist Party.
- The Republican Party on the Right has also suffered after a few MPs joined Macron's "En Marche" Party.
Also, there is the fact that every Party since 1988, which presents at least 50 candidates, can obtain Financial aid to cover operating costs, of 1,42 euros for each vote obtained in the General Election during 5 years, even if no one is finally elected. That also explains the numerous candidates standing in this election.
The general impression today is that no one party alone could obtain a majority. That means there could be a "Hung Parliament" !
Friday, 19 May 2017
Not for the first time alas, another report, this time in the Le Parisien newpaper, draws attention to a "no-go zone" in the La Chapelle area in the north of Paris.
The Boulevard, under the arches of the Metro, between the stations Barbes Rochouart and La Chapelle, have for a long time been infested by Drug Dealers, Pimps and Migrants. Local residents, in particular women and children, already avoid the area behind the Gare du Nord !
Tourists are attracted to the Pigalle and Anvers Metro stations, but they should also be advised not stray further later in the day !
Once again the absense of security, the soft Justice dispensed by magistrates, because Prisons are already overcrowded, underlines what Electors now hope and expect their new President Emmanuel Macron, will correct.
In the past Police have sometimes intervened heavily, but no new prisons were ever planned !
Thursday, 18 May 2017
The next world crisis could be provoked by the lack of the electricity required for "electric cars".
The knock-on effects would be that less petrol will be needed for less petrol cars. Also electric vehicules with simpler engines would be easier to service.
This means that Petrol production will necessarily fall, like the number of garages required to service cars.
Are Political Leaders prepared for the next "World Crisis" which they and their country can expect ? Does the "motor industry" world-wide not make an important contribution to tax revenues ? What could be taxed instead ?
Have any politicians budgeted for the investments needed in the near future, to increase electricity production ? More Power Stations with increased capacity will be required. Or do they just hope that those needs could be "imported" ?
Such a crisis would also have a direct effect on "unemployment" and social costs .
One must not ignore that the Continent of Africa and other less developed countries, will also require huge increases of electricity just to satisfy their growing basic needs.
This is the future of our World and Planet !
Wednesday, 17 May 2017
The shockwaves after the unexpected election of Macron as the new President of France have not abated.
To imagine that in April last year he started his Political Party "En Marche" from scratch, then resigned as Minister of the Economy in August, to then launch his Campagne and finally become the next President of France, is astounding !
The disasterous term in office of François Hollande finally destroyed his Socialist Party and even its Coalition. But, Macron still has other other objectives to attain.
He must and is, forming a "temporary" Government at a time when his own new Party does not yet have any MPs. And, by nominating a Prime Minister from the Right, he has now also destabilised the Republican Party.
All Parties are now selecting their Candidates for the General Election which officially starts on Monday, May 22, 2017. The deadline for registering a Candidature is Friday, May 19. Only then will we learn how many have finally opted to stand for another Party.
No one knows what the Result of the Election on June 18 could be ! The "temporary" Government will probably have to be modified. Will there be a "hung" National Assembly ? Or could an acceptable Coalition be a quick but evident solution ?
Tuesday, 16 May 2017
Merkel and Macron want to change the EU, which is encouraging, but What, When and How, are real questions for which EU citizens still need answers !
There are several EUs :
- The Eurozone countries and the others,
- The large Eurozone countries which govern and the other smaller countries !
- The non-Eurozone countries, without Britain, which are mainly small and only have a minority vote in the EU !
Just what Merkel and Macron really want to change remains to be explained and that will probably be delayed until after the General Elections in June in France and in September 2017 in Germany !
The main points, which need urgent attention, are well known :
- Secure Border Controls, throughout the EU, for goods and people, by all countries.
- A clearly defined EU-wide Immigration Policy.
- An EU Defence Policy against Terrorist Aggression.
- A revision of now outdated Principles in EU Treaties.
Obvously there are many other points, but a real basic question which needs to be considered is : "Must there always be UNANIMITY" for all EU decisions ?
Monday, 15 May 2017
President Macron has chosen Edouard Philippe as his Prime Minister : he is from the right-wing "Republican Party" (LR) and Alain Juppé was his mentor.
The new Prime Minister will now form a Government, which could be reshuffled after the Election on June 11 and 18.
At least 20 LR have favourably reacted to this nomination. This balances the numerous Socialists who recently joined the "Republic en Marche", the Party Macron recently formed. Their defections have split the Socialist Party !
Will the appointment of Edouard Philippe destabilise the LR party as well, which was Macron's aim ?
Sunday, 14 May 2017
The format of the Eurovision Song Contest has changed completely since it started some 40 years ago ! Is the present format really the best option ?
Is it still a contest to elect "the best song and best tune sung by the best singer", or are there other priorities ?
In the "show" presented on Television last night, 26 countries, including Australia (!), were competing. Of these 19 contestants "sang" in "English", but their vocal use of this language was far away from the English one heard in "My Fair Lady" ! When it was audible, it was a very poor copy of the American English to which one is accustomed and one has admired in US musicals !
Were Contestants obliged by the Organisers, to be surrounded by "dancers", even "acrobats" and others, with the orchestra imposing a loud music beat, just to ensure a Spectacle ? 26 such acts, one after the other, were really overbearing and spoiled the occasion !
Should the Singers, with their interpretation of the Song, not be THE REAL STARS on an occasion like this ?
PS : The winner was Salvador Sobral of Portugal, who sang in Portuguese. 2nd was Bulgaria and 3rd was Moldova : both their artists sang in English.
Thursday, 11 May 2017
After the election of Macron as President of France, even hard-core Socialist Party members seem to be totally lost and no longer seem to know where to look for their next Leader !
This is one just one part of the disasterous Legacy that François Hollande has left after his unexpected election as President 5 years ago ! The other main part of the legacy he has left, is the disasterous state of the French Economy !
Hollande strongly backed Macron against Marine Le Pen and urged (even ordered) his former Ministers to vote for Macron : they all understood the message ! One can say Hollande was totally unethical, to intervene like this !
A General Election will take place in France on June 11 and 18. Macron's Party now called "REPUBLICANS en Marche" will have a candidate in each Constituency !
Those Socialists who had hoped to join Macron, cannot really expect to be selected : the list of 577 candidates was closed yesterday, May 10 ! They could join his Party if they have resigned their membership of the Socialist Party, but will not be automatically selected, even for their own previous constituency where they were Socialist candidates ! This is understandable !
At the General Election there could be one or two or more new Socialist Parties ! .